Galaxy

1. physical parameters

lecture and review

Observations of the High Redshift Universe

Galaxy Formation Theory

Physical properties and environments of nearby galaxies

Galaxies

The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and the IGM

Galaxy Masses: A Review

Multiwavelength Analysis of Galaxy Populations: Lectures

Book


physical parameters

We want to know Physical parameters, but usually some of them can not be directly
measured.

  • 1. redshift,

Photometric redshift and Spectroscopic redshift

  • 2. age
  • 3. mass
  • 4. luminosity
  • 5. color
  • 6. metallcity
  • 7. dust extiction
  • 8. star formation activity
  • 9.size

Phenomenology

Morphology

Environments

Galaxy formation

groups :

http://www.galform.org/

methords:

Chemcial evolution model

semi-analytical modelling

numerical simulations